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Bituminous coal

Bituminous coal, also called soft coal, the most abundant form of coal, intermediate in rank between subbituminous coal and anthracite according to the coal classification used in the United States and Canada. In Britain bituminous coal is commonly called "steam coal," and in Germany the term Steinkohle ("rock coal") is used. In the United States and Canada bituminous coal is divided into high-volatile, medium-volatile, and low-volatile bituminous groups. High-volatile bituminous coal is classified on the basis of its calorific value on a moist, ash-free basis (ranging from 24 to 33 megajoules per kilogram; 10,500 to 14,000 British thermal units per pound), while medium-volatile and low-volatile bituminous coals are classified on the basis of the percentage of fixed carbon present on a dry, ash-free basis (ranging from 69 to 78 percent for medium-volatile and from 78 to 86 percent for low-volatile bituminous coal). Medium-volatile and low-volatile bituminous coals typically have calorific values ​​near 35 megajoules per kilogram (15,000 British thermal units per pound) on a dry, ash-free basis. Bituminous coal is dark brown to black in color and commonly banded, or layered. Microscopically, three main groups of macerals (individual organic constituents of coal) can be recognized: vitrinite, liptinite, and inertinite. The glassy material in most bituminous coal is vitrinite, composed of macerals derived primarily from woody plant tissue. Because of its relatively high heat value and low (less than 3 percent) moisture content, its ease of transportation and storage, and its abundance, bituminous coal has the broadest range of commercial uses among the coals. It has long been utilized for steam generation in electric power plants and industrial boiler plants. In addition, bituminous coals that contain a fairly small amount of sulfur and cake (or "agglomerate") easily are the only coals suited for making metallurgical coke—a hard, spongelike substance of almost pure carbon important for smelting iron ore.

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